## The number 007

Back in 2011, I considered the factors that made Bond’s code number, 007, such a successful meme in the cultural environment, the number being memorable and highly recognisable the world over. I suggested that its effective use as a symbol and trade mark, its adaptability (for instance the seven being depicted as the handle of a gun, and the incorporation of 007 into film titles), and the common way that it is pronounced – double oh seven – are strong contributing factors.

Since then, there’s been some interesting research by mathematician Alex Bellos on how numbers are perceived in culture and the role numbers have in daily life, and I was reminded about this recently. The work may add another factor to what makes 007 so successful.

For part of his research, Alex Bellos carried out a survey among members of the public to find out their favourite number. Top of the list, out of an infinite sequence of numbers, was seven. When asked to characterise the number seven, respondents suggested words such as magical, intelligent and masculine, but also awkward and overconfident (most of which could apply to Bond!).

Alex Bellos describes his research in the book, *Alex Through the Looking Glass* (2014, Bloomsbury). In it, he writes about the cultural significance of the number seven – there are seven days a week, seven wonders of the world, seven deadly sins, and so on – but he dismisses the idea that these are what makes seven so special.

Instead, the number’s significance, Alex Bellos suggests, lies in its oddness. Seven has unique arithmetic properties (for example, it cannot be multiplied or divided within the group of numbers one to ten). And when asked to think of a number, people are most likely to think of seven or a number ending in seven.

Returning to James Bond, we can therefore also suggest that 007 is successful, because seven is an odd number in more ways than one, and because of the way the number seven is brought so readily to mind. Alternative code numbers, say 002 or 005, just wouldn’t be so good. While people would recognise the name James Bond easily enough, they might be more hard-pressed to remember his code number.

As I intimated in my 2011 blog post, Ian Fleming’s creation of the code number 007 was inspired, and has surely contributed to James Bond’s longevity and popularity.

The number 007 Back in 2011, I considered the factors that made Bond’s code number, 007, such a successful meme in the cultural environment, the number being memorable and highly recognisable the

**Jain 108 Academy**

JAMES BOND NUMBER 007 EXPLAINED!

MYSTERY PHYSICS NUMBER 137 and its Reciprocal .007

Most people have heard of James Bond and the number of 007 associated to it.

(Per Wikipedia: 00 concept is introduced and, in Bond’s words, means “that you’ve had to kill a chap in cold blood in the course of some assignment.” Bond’s 00 number (007) was awarded to him because he twice killed in fulfilling assignments)

(or per Ian Fleming: the writer of the Bond novels, explains the 007 title as following: The 007 must be split in “00” and “7”, our James Bond is the seventh special agent of British National Service. The “OO” has to be seen as Double O, they are not numbers. This is the title given to any agent that carries the “license to kill”).

Though, the mysterious number 007 crops again, but in the cryptic world of Quantum Physics (the infinitely small realm of atoms). It has something to do with light emitted from atoms, when they jump orbits, and is the most famous mystery amongst physicists as the formula that derives it unifies the 4 most important symbols of nuclear physics:

“h” = Planck’s Constant the smallest known unit agreed upon, “c” = the Speed Of Light in Einstein’s Relativity Theory,

“e” = the electric charge carried by one electron and

“J𝝅” = JainPi = (3.144…the True Value of Pi based on Phi (1.618…)

To arrive at the 007 number, we take this Fine Structure Constant of 137 and explore its Reciprocal, meaning we divide the Number 1 by 137 and achieve .00729…(which is significant as the decimals 729 is really 9x9x9 and 9, according to Jain 108, is that which underpins all of Creation).

I have cut and pasted most of it here.

Why the number 137 is one of the greatest mysteries in physics

Famous physicists like Richard Feynman think 137 holds the answers to the Universe.

· The fine structure constant has mystified scientists since the 1800s.

· The number 1/137 might hold the clues to the Grand Unified Theory.

· Relativity, electromagnetism and quantum mechanics are unified by the number.

Does the Universe around us have a fundamental structure that can be glimpsed through special numbers?

The brilliant physicist Richard Feynman (1918-1988) famously thought so, saying there is a number that all theoretical physicists of worth should “worry about”. He called it “one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man”.

That magic number, called the fine structure constant, is a fundamental constant, with a value which nearly equals 1/137. Or 1/137.03599913, to be precise. It is denoted by the Greek letter alpha – α.

What’s special about alpha is that it’s regarded as the best example of a pure number, one that doesn’t need units. It actually combines three of nature’s fundamental constants – the speed of light, the electric charge carried by one electron, and the Planck’s constant, as explains physicist and astrobiologist Paul Davies to Cosmos Magazine. Appearing at the intersection of such key areas of physics as relativity, electromagnetism and quantum mechanics is what gives 1/137 its allure.

Physicist Laurence Eaves, a professor at the University of Nottingham, thinks the number 137 would be the one you’d signal to the aliens to indicate that we have some measure of mastery over our planet and understand quantum mechanics. The aliens would know the number as well, especially if they developed advanced sciences.

The number preoccupied other great physicists as well, including the Nobel Prize winning Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) who was obsessed with it his whole life.

“When I die my first question to the Devil will be: What is the meaning of the fine structure constant?” Pauli joked.

Pauli also referred to the fine structure constant during his Nobel lecture on December 13th, 1946 in Stockholm, saying a theory was necessary that would determine the constant’s value and “thus explain the atomistic structure of electricity, which is such an essential quality of all atomic sources of electric fields actually occurring in nature.”

One use of this curious number is to measure the interaction of charged particles like electrons with electromagnetic fields. Alpha determines how fast an excited atom can emit a photon. It also affects the details of the light emitted by atoms. Scientists have been able to observe a pattern of shifts of light coming from atoms called “fine structure” (giving the constant its name). This “fine structure” has been seen in sunlight and the light coming from other stars.

The constant figures in other situations, making physicists wonder why. Why does nature insist on this number? It has appeared in various calculations in physics since the 1880s, spurring numerous attempts to come up with a Grand Unified Theory that would incorporate the constant since. So far no single explanation took hold. Recent research also introduced the possibility that the constant has actually increased over the last six billion years, even though slightly.

If you’d like to know the math behind fine structure constant more specifically, the way you arrive at alpha is by putting the 3 constants h, c, and e together in the equation —

As the units c, e, and h cancel each other out, the “pure” number of 137.03599913 is left behind. For historical reasons, says Prof. Davies, the inverse of the equation is used 2πe2/hc = 1/137.03599913. If you’re wondering what is the precise value of that fraction – it’s 0.007297351.

JAMES BOND NUMBER 007 EXPLAINED! MYSTERY PHYSICS NUMBER 137 and its Reciprocal .007 Most people have heard of James Bond and the number of 007…